Humanist movement in
With special reference to Andhra Pradesh
Humanist movement in India commenced simultaneously on par with western countries around 1940s..M.N.Roy was the founder of the movement in
. It was initi ated during the beginning of Second World War. To spread the message M N Roy started daily paper Independent India .Later it came as Radical Humanist, weekly... Roy also published Marxian way and Humanist way, the two outstanding theoretical journals... He was the first person who pleaded for renaissance, decentralization, democratic constitution, power to people, morals in politics recall right for voters, and above all scientific approach to all problems. India
The Radical Democratic Party set an example of scientific politics with its study camps, training classes and journals. Both at all India level and state lever the renaissance clubs played crucial role in spreading the scientific politics with new orientation. The Party started during early 1940s set an example how it can be different from Congress, Socialist and communist parties both in theory and practice.
There are numerous intellectuals, writers and politicians who followed the path of M
N Roy in spreading the idea of New Humanism.
In course of time M
N Roy came to the conclusion that the main hindrance to scientific politics and renaissance is political party. All political parties think that their party is right and all other parties are wrong. Moreover the party thinks: MY PARTY, RIGHT OR WRONG. To implement the new humanist ideas the radical Democratic Party was abolished in favor of New Humanist movement. That is historical turning point in the history of Indian Renaissance movement. It commenced with advent of Independent . India
The history of New Humanist movement has to be written. To set an example here is an attempt made to give glimpse of movement in
. Similarly each state should present its history so that a comprehensive compendium may be passed on to future generations Andhra Pradesh State
The Role of Andhra Pradesh in Humanist movement.
The delegates who attended the Faizpur Congress in 1936 felt that the speech and role of M
N Roy set a different path from the traditional approach to politics. One person from Andhra invited M N Roy to visit Andhra. He was M.V.Sastri ( Mulukutla Venkata Sastri) who represented news paper of Kunduru Eswar Datt journal. accepted. Later he was invited to inaugurate the agricultural labour conference at Roy town in coastal Andhra. Mr. Vennelaganti Raghaviah (related to president V V Giri) invited Nellore . On 31 July 1938 M Roy N Roy stepped into Andhra town and inaugurated the conference. Immediately he fell sick and M V Sastri took him to Kakinada , coastal town of . The news reached Andhra where Mr. Abburi Ramakrishnarao was working as librarian. He brought Andhra University to Waltair. M Roy N Roy stayed with Mr. H.Gupta in Maharani pet of Vizad where he recovered. By then Ellen Roy also joined him at Waltair. Mr. Abburi introduced M N Roy to the Vice Chancellor of . He was late Kattamanchi Ramalingareddi (C R Reddi) who offered professor post to M Andhra University N Roy in the university. politely declined. They became great friends and C R Reddi wrote brilliant introduction to LETTERS FROM JAIL. Since then M Roy N Roy frequently visited University and Andhra area till his last days. Letters from Jail was translated and published as series in Radical Humanist fortnightly in Telugu later.
By the time M
N Roy was released from jail after 6 years imprisonment by British rulers, he completed his monumental work: The Philosophical Consequences of Modern Science. That was not published fully yet, but parts of it were published under the title: Scince and Philosophy. Roy gave comprehensive thought on various problems like beginning and end, Problem of determinism, Origin of life etc. Later some of these parts were translated into Telugu by N.Innaiah and published in Prasarita, a quarterly Telugu magazine. Prof A B Shah circulated the script to some friends for discussion. went on including few parts in his later writings. Roy
Abburi Ramakrishna Rao became the first state organizer of Radical Democratic Party. He was ably assisted by M V Sastri, A L Narasimharao, Pemmaraju Venkatarao, Tata Devakinandan(municipal chairman of Vizayanagaram).The message of
spread quickly in Andhra. Roy
Tripuraneni Gopichand, writer, director became the first state secretary of Radical Democaratic party. He was prolific writer who introduced political short stories in Telugu. He attacked communists and congress party with powerful and pungent pen. Much of
’s thought were brought out into Telugu through short stories, plays and criticism by Gopichand. Roy
Several of M
N Roy’s writings were simultaneously translated into Telugu and published. In those days the press was very nationalistic and did not entertain the radical ideas of Humanists. Hence Mr. Gudavalli Ramabrahmam, cine director started one weekly called Prajamitra where the articles of Royists found place. Ramabrahmam received Roy in and gave grand reception with several journalists. In that party some journalists put irritating questions to Madras . One such person was Mr. Khasa Subbarao, editor of Indian Express from Roy . He made some nasty remarks against Ellen Roy and Madras violently reacted, saying that such persons need cudgeling.He waved the news paper in his hand towards Khasa Subbarao. At this incident the journalists protested and walked out of the reception in Roy in 1938.They boycotted the news of Radical humanists in the press. Madras
But the radical humanists were non compromising. They conducted political schools in Andhra and several youth were trained. Few journals like Mulukola edited Bandi Butchaih fromVijayawada published the articles of Royists.
The first all
Radical democratic political school was conducted in Dehradun in early 1940s and the whole deliberations were brought out into a book called SCIENTIFIC POLITICS. It was translated into Telugu as class relations which attracted the intellectuals and gave fitting reply to communists. India
Mr. Palagummi Padmaraju and Mr. G V Krishnarao emerged as powerful literary writers in support of M
N Roy and Humanism. Padmaraju wrote novels with central theme of Humanism. He got world prize for his short storiy ( Gaali Vaana) Storm.He also wrote script to several movies.
Mr. G V Krishnarao emerged as theoretical writer of
’s philosophy and countered communist theories of aesthetics. Roy
Mr. Koganti Radhakrishna Murty from Kuchipudi village started publication under the name of Prajasahitya prachuranalu and brought out many writings and translations. He himself wrote a book on writings of M
During Second World War Roy and his close associate G D Parekh came out with alternative economic planning under name of PEOPLES PLAN. This is treated as alternative plan to
plan of Birla and rich people. In the Second World War period, communists scandalized M Bombay N Roy and radicals for supporting Britishers in the war against Fascists and Nazis. Not only that , they were blamed for accepting Rs 13 thousand for war propaganda. V B karnik explained the whole episode and reasonably told the world how and why they support Britishers in the war. Later communists were proved wrong and was proved right. Similarly M N Roy supported Subhas Chandra Bose for the post of president of All Roy Congress. Gandhi opposed him but Bose won. Then India advised him not to include the Gandhites in the executive lest they should sabotage. Bose did not heed the advice of Roy and included Gandhites in his executive. They promptly sabotaged Bose and next time Bose was defeated. No body received Bose when he was defeated .When he arrived at Luck now only M Roy N Roy followers received him and Mr. Avula Gopala Krishna Murty and others hosted him in their university hostel.
The second all
India study camp at brought out its deliberations under the title: New Orientation. Dehra Dun
Again the essence was brought out into Telugu.
Radical were attacked by communists in
Bengal, especially in Kolkata during war period. Their study camps were disrupted. M V Ramamurthy was one of the victims to the violent attacks of communists.
Radical Democratic Party contested the first elections during 1946.At that time only limited voters were there. Those who paid taxes were given voting rights. From Andhra few candidates contested and faced uphill task. They encountered much opposition from political parties but also nationalist voters. Hence all the candidates lost in the election. But that was also great opportunity for Radicals to spread the humanist alternative. Mr. Koganti Radhakrishna Murty, Mr. Ravipudi Venkatadri, Mr. Bandaru Vandanam contested. Mr. M V Ramamurthy, Mr. Guttikonda Narahari, Mr. Avula Gopala Krishna Murty, Mr. N V Brahmam and few others propagated for the candidates. That was a big turning point in the Radical Democratic Party and after the election M
N Roy came out with the proposal that the party should be abolished in favor of movement.
Then came out the alternative political philosophy and it came out as 22 thesis. Much discussion went on and immediately the Telugu version came out. It has become very difficult for many to accept politics without parties and power. Philip Spratt opposed the disbanding of Radical Democratic Party. But
stood on his principle. Roy
N Roy published a small but powerful book entitled: JAWAHARLAL NEHRU. It exposed the hamlet nature of Nehru in politics. gave fitting reply to Nehru. In his criticism Nehru said that he liked Roy ’s economics but not politics. Then Roy retorted saying that his politics and economics are interwoven and cannot be separated. Roy
Radicals in Andhra were the earliest batch to catch up criticism of M
N Roy on Mahatma Gandhi. Gopichand, Avula Gopalakrishna Murty,Guttikonda Narahari did that uphill task. exposed the religious views of Gandhi from scientific point of view. Mr. Avula Gopalakrishna Murty published articles on Gandhi in Telugu based on Roy ’s criticism. Even Racists like Abburi Ramakrishna Rao could not absorb it. Abburi complained against Avula Gopalakrishna Murty to M N Roy but Avula Gopalakrishna Murty got clean chit from Roy and endorsed the criticism of AGK. Roy
’s articles were brought out by Koganti Radhakrishna Murty in lucid Telugu.He established printing press and brought many publications of Humanist thought. Roy
In Andhra are the communists were very powerful force during after
Mr. Jasti Jaganadham translated some parts of the book covering Marxism and Humanism. It was serialized in Vahini Telugu weekly. Later the whole book was translated by N.Innaiah and Telugu Akademi published it.
Ellen Roy published the essential speeches and writings of M
N Roy under the title: PARTIES POWER AND POLITICS. This was translated into Telugu and serialized in Prajavani weekly from by N.Innaiah. Guntur
AGK (Avula Gopalakrishna Murty) 1917-1967
The outstanding personality among Royists and humanists in Andhra was late AGK. He was known as Vyasopanyaasaka.(essayist and speaker).He edited weekly called Radical, Radical Humanist and Sameeksha. By profession he was attorney but spread the message of Humanism through his activities. He officiated several secular marriages as part humanist thought. He participated in literary campaigns and attacked the reactionalry poets like late Viswanatha Satyanarayana He used to give fitting replies to communists, congress and socialists who attacked the ideas of Roy and Humanism. He participated in All
Radical humanist study camps.AGK encouraged poets, writers, singers, artists and promoted humanist ideology through aesthetics. India
Mr. Bhattiprolu Hanumantharao taught history scientifically and published books from scientific perspective. Mr. Kalluri Basaveswararao collaborated with him in history text books.Mr Hanumantharao was the first person to translate M
N Roy memoirs into Telugu. (It was published by allied, ) Bombay
N Roy’s memoirs of cat are popular in Telugu. Mr. A V Mohan translated it into Telugu and later Ms Komala Venigalla translated which ran into three editions.
Mr Jasti Jagannadham published the Telugu translation of M
N Roy’s Reason Romanticism and Revolution but only some parts are published in journals.
Mr. Alapati Ravindranath started Jyothi journal from Tenali which was very popular in spreading the ideas of M N Roy, Ellen and Radicals. He introduced new techniques of stories, scientific sex education and family planning. During 1948 he was sued for propagating family planning by publishing the article of Ellen Roy. It was very radical idea for orthodox people! Later he started monthly magazine Misimi in Telugu which established among literary sections.
Mr. D.V.Narasaraju, cine writer remained Royist throughout his life. He was prolific writer and his short plays, stories, satirical essays were very popular.
Mr. Koganti Subrahmanyam edited Radical Humanist Telugu journal .He was hard core worker who spread the ideas of Humanism.
Mr. Ravipudi Venkatadri contested as Radical Democratic Party candidate in 1946 elections and it was great opportunity to spread M
N Roy thought in villages thought he encountered much antagonism from nationalist and communists. He was the earliest writer to spread ’s ideas on astrology, origin of life and dialectics. He wrote magnum opus on the thought of M Roy N Roy and exposed communists. He sustained the movement through his speeches, participation in study camps and editing rationalist journal.Venkatadri was the earliest humanist to attack dialectics of Marx and clarified the humanist position. He explained in a lucid manner the falsehood of astrology and supported astronomy. He also narrated the origin of life and growth from scientific point of view and demystified the religious stories. He countered the false criticism of communists against M N Roy and published magnum opus on M N Roy and his thought. In later part of his life he devoted to the monthly magazine Hetuvadi magazine and criticism of religion, myths, and belief systems.
Mr. N.V Brahmam is the earliest student inAll
India Radical Humanist camp at . His book on Bible was banned in Telugu and later it was lifted through Supreme Court order. Brahnan spread the humanist thought through his tutorial institutions. Dehra Dun
Mr. Yelavarti Rosaiah who taught in Andhra Christian college, Günter was the root cause to spread the thought of M
N Roy through his students. Many of his disciples emerged as good Royists.
Guttikonda Narahari, orator in Telugu was the secretary of Radical Democratic Party in Andhra. His speeches were very popular and he faced the scathing attacks of communists through his pungent oration.
M V Ramamurthy was one of the pioneers in Andhra to propagate the Radical Humanist thought throughout. He was also the president of all
Radical Democratic association. India
He along with his wife Subfamily devoted for the cause of humanist movement. He published articles, books and translations. Along with Koganti Radhakrishna Murti he established Prajaswamya prachuranalu and brought the writings of
in Telugu. Ramamurthy edited one monthly magazine Vikasam for few years. He toured entire Roy and established contacts with humanists. From 1940 onwords Ramamurthy consistently worked for the movement until his death. India
Mr. Bachu Venkateswarlu was one of the youngest person who established renaissance club as suggested by
and attracted youth into the movement. He operated from Chirala town but he died premature in an accident. Roy
Mr. Kolli Sivaramireddi, advocate from Kathevaram village edited Sameeksha journal when the movement was in financial doldrums. He was assisted by Mr. M V Ramanaiah, teacher from Tenali.Mr Parasuram, a teacher from Tenali did ground work at grass root level to spread the humanist thought especially the literary aspects. Mr. Meka Chakrapani from Gudavalli was good speaker and writer who sustained humanist thought locally.
Mr. M.Narayana in Telengana area died as deputy collector .He used to go round villages with writings of Roy and spread the thought of M N Roy especially on decentralization, power to people.
Mr. V S Avadhani who worked in British counsil
actively participated in the movement through study camps. Madras
Mr. V R Narla editor of two popular Telugu dailies opposed M
N Roy in the initial period and did not allow to publish the news in dailies. Later after reading M N Roy’s literature he totally changed and started publishing several writings in favor of M N Roy and Humanism. He dedicated some of his writings to V MTarkunde, Prem Nath Bazax, Niranjan dhar, Sushil Mukherjee. He came close to Sibnarayan ray, A B Shah and Tarkunde.
Mr. Ancha Baparao edited radical journals from Chirala and during crisis helped the movement. His education center at Chirala town became center of humanist activities for several years.
Similarly Mr. M.Basavapunnarao worked very hard to sustain the movement in difficulties. He was the root cause to establish the Federation of Humanist, rationalist and atheist association in Andhra Pradesh with Dr N.Innaiah as chairman. It conducted humanist activities successfully. They invited Mr. B.Premanand who organized magic classes for youth and exposed cult gurus, Mathaas, Baabaas. Mr. Gurijala Sitaramaiah in Tenali always came to the rescue of movement both financially and physical help. His M
N Roy Bhavan and Naveen lodge are good sources for humanists to conduct innumerable meetings, seminars and study camps.
At present Mr C L N Gandhi is helping the movement in Andhra Pradesh.Mr S.A.Baksh stood for the movement and showed example by intercommunity marriage and secular weddings. He propagated the ideas through schools and camps.
Me Swadeshi Ranjan Das Gupta published COOPERTIVE COMMON WEALTH from Kolkata depicting the ideas of
on economic decentralization and village life. It was translated into Telugu by N.Innaiah and serialized in Radical Humanist Telugu weekly from Tenali, edited by Koganti subrahmanyam. Roy
’s Heresies of twentieth Century articles were translated by N.Innaiah and published in Prajavani and Radical Humanist Telugu journal. Roy
Mr. Pasala Bhimanna through his magic performances spreading scientific thought to younger generations.He also published few books.
In the field level there are numerous persons who stood for the movement. MrGorantla Raghavaiah is one such person who is great friend of Mr. Venkatadri.
Mr. Ch Rajareddi gave solid support to the movement through his printing pressLiberty and publications. He edited Sameeksha for some time.
Mr. Thotakura Venkateswarlu (Babu) edited Charvaka magazine which spread the message in Andhra and several youth were inspired by it.
The Present writer published several books on humanism, rationalism, secularism in Telugu and English. He also translated the major writings of M N Roy, A B Shah, V B Karnik, Sibnarayan Ray, Agehananda Bharati, V R Narla into Telugu.There were brought out by Telugu Akademy, Telugu University.
There is one journal now running from Chirala town edited by R Venkatadri and Mr. M.Satyanaryana.One dynamic group of radicals from Inkole are continuously devoting their time and energy from Inkole village. They are Mr. M Satyanarayana, HanumantharaoHharibabu, Shaik Babu who devote their time and energy for the radical humanist center.
Mr. Lavu Ankamma from Pedanandipadu worked for the Humanist movement when
was alive. Roy
Mr. Gumma Veeranna who just retired from government service devoting his time and energy to the humanist movement since three decades. He contributed several thoughtful articles in Telugu journals and published books on humanist thought. He also translated books into Telugu for the cause of Humanism.Veeranna participated in several study camps, meetings and continuously putting all his efforts to sustain the movement. He published translations of V M Tarkunde`s humanist thought into Telugu.
From outside Mr. Aramalla Purnachandra (now in
) constantly helped the humanist movement and humanist center. He wrote scientific books and articles. New York
Persons who extend their help in Andhra Pradesh are Mr. Kotapati Murahari Rao, supported the movement with financial help and cooperated for bringinout many publications.
Mr. Narra Kotaiah, Mr. Narne Venkatasubaiah, Mr. C.Ranganayakulu, Raghavarao, Parvataiah.
Mr. Paula from Tenali contributed his thoughtful writings to the movement.Mr C L Gandhi in
is not only helpful but very encouraging for the movement. Hyderabad
Malladi Subbamma worked constantly for the upliftment of women and stood for secular humanism. She functioned from her residence for the upliftment of women. She edited one monthly for sometime and spread the thought of Humanism.
Mr. Avula Sambasivarao, who was chief justice of Andhra Pradesh High court gave inspiration and help to the humanist movement throughout his life. He contributed several articles on Humanist thought.
Mr. Mandava Sriramamurty from Vijayawada, Mr. Koneru Kutumbarao from Avanigadda, Mr. Gokulchand, Polu Satyanarayana, Y.Raghavaiah, and B A V Sharma Mr. Aleru Bhujangarao worked for the movement at various levels.
humanist leaders visited the state on many occasions and gave speeches, participated in meetings, conferences and inspired workers, and writers. They are: Sunil Bhattacharya, Maniben Kara, Indumati Parekh, A B Shah, C T Daru, G R Dalvi, V M Tarkunde, K K Sinha, V K sinha, Gauri Bazaz, Pancholi, R S Yadav,Laxman Sastri Joshi,Jayanti Patel,J B H Wadia, and numerous others. India
Mr. Bandaru Vandanam worked with the movement at early stage and also contests as candidate of Radical Democratic candidate in 1946.
Mr. Jampala Syama Sundararao, Mr. Kosaraju Sambasivarao, Kosaraju Ammaiah, Vasireddi Sivalingaiah worked for the movement.
Mr. Ravela Somaiah from 1960 onwards cooperated with the movement and had correspondence with all veterans of the movement.
Mr. P V Subbarao, advocate from Tenali worked for the movement in early stages and contributed books and articles.
Mr. Paramaiah, Chalamaiah Chunchu Seshaiah, Jana Nageswararao,Kolla Subbarao. Mr. Kolla Subbarao propagated the ideas of Roy especially the cooperative economy and also translated couple of books into Telugu., Guruvulu, P S Raju, Satyanarayana Raju worked for the movement.
Jasti Ramaswami, Jasti Jawahalral, PSR worked for the movement from various angles and spread the literature.He along with Mr. Venkatadri published the history of rationalist and humanist movement’s inAndrha Pradesh. PSR did field work through blood donation, eye donation banks that helped several people.
After the death of Roy
After 1955, several persons were inactive in the movement. Mr. Pemmaraju Venkatarao joined Congress party with a hope to introduce Radical thought into that party. Later he moved close to Telugu Desam party.
Mr. M V Sastry joined Swatantra party. He was elected as legislator in council from graduate’s constituency.
Mr. A.Ramakrishnarao retired from active cultural activities and drifted into faith.
Mr. Guttikonda Narahari joined N G Ranga and started his own tobacco business.
Mr. Tripuraneni Gopichand gradually moved towards Aurobindo and became devotee.
Ellen Roy frequently visited the state and kept contacts.
Mr. V M Tarkunde joined hands with Jayaprakash Narayan in party less politics and civil liberties. At one juncture communists also worked with Tarkunde through their front organization like people` union for civil liberties.
Sibnarayan Ray published the biography of M N Roy which was translated into Telugu by N.Innaiah and published by
. Potti Sriramulu Telugu University
Mr. a B Shah established secular society and frequently visited state established state unit. He also worked with Congress for cultural freedom.
A.B Shah’s Scientific method was translated into Telugu by N.Innaiah which ran into three editions.
Philosophy department put Scientific Method in M.A Syllabi for few years during 1970s. Osmania University
The Political Science department taught M
N Roy political philosophy for M A students.
A B Shah introduced much discussion on 22 theses. He suggested that the Philosophical consequences of Modern Science should be edited and updated with modern scientific developments. His magazines Quest, New Quest, Secularist helped to further the discussion. Prof Daya Krishna from Rajasthan participated in the discussion. But the main task of editing
’s thesis is still pending.Dr Pushpa Bhargava also discussed 22 theses thoroughly. Prof Sibnarayan ray also suggested proper updating of it is a must. A BShah established secular society Andhra Pradesh branch with N.Innaiah as in charge. Several intellectual discussions were held and seminars were conducted in Andhra. Muslim, Christian and Hindu organizations participated in the seminars along with intellectuals from universities. Prof B A V Sharma and Mr. V K Sinha, Prof Alam Khundmiri, Prof K Seshadri contributed much thought for promoting secular ideas. Many of the writings of Shah were brought into Telugu by N.Innaiah. The fundamentalists of all religions attacked A B Shah and secularists in Andhra but they with stood the onslaught. Mr. V R Narla participated in the secular and humanist camps. Justice PingleJagan Mohan Reddi, Justice A Gangadhararao, Justice Jeevan Reddi, Justice Chinnapa Reddi participated in the humanist and secularist study camps and encouraged in Andhra Pradesh. After the premature death of Roy
A B Shah in 1982 secular movement had set back.
A B Shah in 1982 secular movement had set back.
Mr. V B Karnik worked in Leslie Sahney organization to develop panchayat raj and visited state to encourage study campsHe was in constant touch with Andhra Pradesh. His biography of M N Roy both large edition and abridged edition were translated into Telugu by N.Innaiah and published by Telugu akademi.Mr W.S Kane brought out these volumes and visited Andhra Pradesh several times.
Dr G R Dalvi was another inspiring economist who developed many contacts with Andhra radicals. He was working in the Administrative staff
. During his tenure he invited famous radicals like V B Karnik, A B Shah, Nissim Ezekiel to college of India . They gave many lectures and toured the state. Similarly J BH Wadia, Laxman Sastri Joshi visited the state. Prem Nath Bazaz also constantly kept in touch with Hyderabad . Prof Jayanti Patel toured the state when he was president of Indian Radical Humanist association. Hyderabad
Indumati Parekh kept constant touch with the state as president of Radical Humanist association.
Maniben Kara visited the state in her capacity as chairman of all
women organization. India
Within the state Mr. Avula Gopalakrishna murty carried the torch of humanist flame and struggled to sustaing the interest. His early death in 1967 was a schock to the movement. Then Mr M V Ramamurthy took the responsibility and carried the burden. Later Mr. Ravipudi Venkatadri continued Rationalist organization and Hetuvadi magazine which has become a link to all the organizers.
Telugu field is rich with literature of Radical Humanist writers, translations and magazines.
M N Roy centenary year was celebrated in Andhra Pradesh in 1987.The whole set of books of and by
Roy and books of V B Karnack’s biography of M N Roy were released by Telugu Akademi. A big function was held in with Indra Reddi, education minister, Mr. Daggupati Venkateswararao, Prof C Laxmanna, Mr. R Venkatadri and Mr. N.Innaiah. Vijayawada
Mr. Gahanna Bharati delivered lectures on
Roy in Osmania University and Ambedkar Open University during M N Roy centenary year.
Some sister organizations cooperate for camps, meetings, magic performances and rallies.
Several times efforts were made to establish Humanist center in vain. Only individuals are working from their houses or offices.
One center was established in Inkole, a big village near Chirala town. Few committed humanists are working for the center with annual celebrations, occasional meetings and publications.
The Radical Humanist movement is very weak now in Andhra Pradesh. Very few people are there to work for it. Youth are not coming .forward. Educational institutions are not teaching
It is future challenge.